International Exchange Programs: Strengthening Transatlantic Relations

By Matteo Quattrocchi, Programs and Exchanges Assistant, Department of Public Affairs, U.S. Mission to the European Union.

In 2010, right after graduating from LUISS University in Rome, I decided that I wanted to study in the United States. I based my decision on the fact that I wanted to live in the U.S. and that I thought a U.S. degree would give me a competitive advantage while looking for a job. While my degree definitely helped in the job market, it was the experience of living abroad, in direct contact with a foreign culture that changed entirely my perspective on American society and the American people. All the time I had spent studying American Law and History before moving to Washington did not come close to the experience of being an international student in the U.S. Issues I had learned of in books, from the Bill of Rights to the U.S. National Security structure, suddenly became a living thing I was part of. Studying in an American university proved to be an incredibly challenging and fulfilling experience. Moreover, personal connections with fellow American students gave me a deeper understanding of U.S. society, with its fundamental values and freedoms, and the intrinsic contradictions of the world oldest democracy. When I eventually moved back to Europe, I realized my sensitivity towards a foreign culture had fundamentally changed. At the same time those I came in contact with had learned more about my home country; their sensitivities also fundamentally changed. Overall, I feel this increased cultural awareness also transferred to my openness to understanding other cultures and nationalities.

Educational exchanges have always been at the center of the growth of culture, fostering global integration in times of turmoil as in times of peace. The cornerstone of any educational system is the free exchange of ideas among academics, students and society at large. It is the possibility for students and teachers to travel and visit foreign learning institutions, to broaden their horizons, and bring back to their home countries new perspectives, that allows cultures to develop.

The Fulbright program, established in 1946, has been the most successful exchange to date, and has become a fundamental stepping stone for generations of students and academics traveling the world. The success of the Fulbright Program has led the way for countless similar exchanges, none more renowned than the Erasmus Program, established in 1987 and today a fundamental part of the European experience for millions of European citizens.

What we now call the Fulbright-Schuman Program started as a small exchange program between the United States and the European Communities in 1990.  22977623181_a8ba225293_oIt supported the study of transatlantic issues, fostering a new generation of American and European thinkers. This year we celebrate the 25th anniversary of the Fulbright-Schuman Program, with more than 300 American and European citizens benefitting from the program since 1990 and making fundamental contributions to strengthening U.S.-EU relations.

As Fulbright-Schuman moves to confirm its success for the years to come, it also strives to expand its support to forward thinking individuals across the United States and Europe. In October, U.S Ambassador to the EU, Anthony Luzzatto Gardner announced the creation of the new Fulbright-Schuman Innovation Grants to support research at the intersection of technology and policy.

Grantees will focus their work on how to conciliate technological advancements with existing regulatory and policy frameworks. For the first time in the history of Fulbright-Schuman, the U.S. Mission to the EU is looking to the private sector for support in this exciting new initiative. As the success of the Fulbright and Erasmus programs proves, an investment in educational exchanges is the safest investment in the future of U.S.-EU relations.

This month, from November 16th to November 20th, celebrate International Education Week, now in its 15th edition. The Fulbright Program is but part of the larger effort by the U.S. Government to bring international students to the United States. Each year, nearly 975,000 international students (64,000 from the EU) travel across the country to discover the American way of life and of learning. They bring back to their home countries shared values and a new understanding of the United States. At the same time, more than 157,000 U.S. students chose to study in the EU each year, experiencing the cultures, languages, and traditions that make the EU great.

Educational exchanges constitute a fundamental part of the Department of State’s outreach programs. They allow for a better understanding with partner countries, and to mitigate tensions with other. They have undoubtedly served as an indispensable instrument for the policy priorities of the U.S. Mission to the EU.

Nevertheless, exchanges are not just a public diplomacy tool. Over the years, they have bridged what often seemed unsurmountable differences. Educational exchanges contribute every day in connecting students from across the world.  As I learned during my year in Washington, DC, these exchanges allow not only for the sharing of ideas and research, but especially that cultures and traditions become part of a personal growth experience for communities in the U.S. and abroad.

USAID Hosted Young EU Professionals to Discuss Development and Humanitarian Issues

by Marc Ellingstad, USAID Counselor of Mission for International Development at the U.S. Mission to the European Union and Lev Turner, USAID Advisor for Food Security and Humanitarian Assistance at the U.S. Mission to the European Union

Collectively, the EU (along with its member states) and the U.S. provide about 80% of official development assistance, thus coordination for the benefit of our development partners is critical. The close relationships between USAID and European Union institutions around the world allow us to more effectively coordinate policies and programs, both at HQ level and on the ground. Whether we are addressing longer-term development strategies or emergency situations such as natural disasters, the goal is to provide more effective and efficient assistance. There is always room for improvement, and together with our EU colleagues, we are exploring ways to expand joint programming, which can reduce overhead costs and foster common development platforms in-country. When we face challenges that are insurmountable with funding alone, we work to identity opportunities to strengthen the promotion of our shared values around dignity, humanitarian access, and protection through joint messaging and advocacy.


Lev Turner and Marc Ellingstad together with a group of EU Young Professionals, November 4th, 2015.

In early November, we hosted a very dynamic and engaged group of young EU professionals to discuss development and humanitarian issues. Beginning with a brief introduction to the United States Agency for International Development, we noted that our historic roots are in Europe with the Marshall Plan and John F. Kennedy formally constituted the Agency in 1961. We described the relatively decentralized way that USAID works, the importance we place on country-level expertise and ownership, and the very vital role that our local colleagues play in our operations around the world.   Turning to how we work, we noted USAID is committed to strengthening local ownership and capacities. One of the many ways we strive towards that goal is by increasingly implementing our programming directly with local partners. Like our development colleagues in the EU Commission, it is important for us to approach our work in country as cooperative efforts with partners.

During our exchange with our guests, we were quite impressed by their knowledge and insightful questions. Given the numbers of refugees currently arriving in the European Union every day, we were not surprised that many of the questions concerned migration and how policymakers and development professionals can best address root causes. We discussed the challenges faced by Syrian refugees in meeting their basic humanitarian needs, and the importance of providing higher levels of humanitarian assistance for refugees and internally displaced persons in the region, including educational opportunities for affected children. We also discussed migration patterns in the Americas, and the unique security and development challenges facing Honduras, Guatemala, and El Salvador. We agreed on the need to be disciplined and committed to development and humanitarian financing – it is better to help prevent a crisis than respond to one.


Lev Turner explaining the system of debit cards, given to refugees.

Development and humanitarian issues span the entire globe, and our brief event hardly provided us with enough time to scratch the surface on important topics raised by our counterparts, such as the role of technology and connectivity in development, the importance of education, challenges facing development agencies working in hostile environments, the intersection between trade and development and the role of free-trade agreements, how we approach questions of food security, the role of China as a donor in Africa, and the role that remittances play. Still, Lev and I both enjoyed the depth of thinking and analysis that formed our conversation. The energy and thoughtfulness that came across from our young European colleagues was indeed inspiring.

Whiskey Tasting Seminar Highlights the Quality and Diversity of American Whiskeys

By Karisha Kuypers, Agricultural Attache, Foreign Agricultural Service (USDA), U.S. Mission to the European Union

The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) is tasked with promoting exports of U.S. agricultural products overseas. We promote U.S. agriculture in many ways but much of our work involves supporting U.S. agricultural cooperator groups, which are organizations that offer marketing assistance to U.S. exporters, sponsor trade missions, and help farmers and ranchers identify international market opportunities. We recently worked with one such organization, the Distilled Spirits Council of the United States (DISCUS), hosting an event to highlight the quality and diversity of a great American product – American whiskeys.


Ambassador Anthony Gardner speaking at the Whiskey Tasting Seminar

On September 30, the U.S. Mission to the European Union (USEU) and the U.S. Mission to the Kingdom of Belgium co-hosted a whiskey tasting seminar sponsored by DISCUS to promote and educate guests about fine U.S. whiskeys and spirits. The tasting seminar was led by a well-known American mixologist from New York City, Christy Pope. Ms. Pope
discussed the cultural history of distilled spirits in the United States and explained the differences between American whiskeys and other whiskeys around the world.  She then led guests through a formal tasting of six whiskeys and demonstrated how to make two kinds of specialty cocktails with American whiskey. After the presentation, guests had the opportunity to try a variety of small-batch whiskeys and spirits from craft distilleries from all around the United States. Almost 80 guests attended the tasting, including local spirits importers, distributors, and retail buyers, in addition to officials from EU institutions and European agricultural associations. European journalists who cover lifestyles, food, and wine, as well as political and business journalists, also participated.


Christy Pope’s presentation at the Whiskey Tasting Seminar

Whiskey has a long history in the United States and in many ways forms an important part of American culture. American whiskeys are distinct from whiskeys made in other countries – it must contain at least 51 percent of corn (for bourbon) or rye (for rye whiskey) and adhere to a number of other criteria to be labeled an “American Whiskey.”

The countries of the European Union are some of the biggest export markets for U.S. spirits. One-half of U.S. exports of spirits now go to the EU and Europe is the largest and still fastest growing market for U.S. spirits. The United States exported almost $750 million of distilled spirits to the EU in 2014, with the United Kingdom ($178 million), Germany ($143 million), and France ($109 million) as the EU’s largest importers of U.S. spirits. Belgium is the ninth largest importer of U.S. spirits in the EU, bringing in $19.9 million in 2014.American Whiskeys more than 80 percent of the spirits exported to the EU are Bourbons and Tennessee whiskeys, Europe is obviously already familiar with some of the more famous American whiskeys. However, what is not always well known is the incredible diversity of distilleries in the United States that are making high-quality American whiskey and other spirits. In 2013, there were over 600 craft distilleries making whiskeys and spirits in the United States. These distilleries range from big internationally known names like Jim Bean and Jack Daniels to craft distilleries making small batches of artisanal whiskeys and spirits.
The whiskey seminar was a great opportunity to familiarize the European market with high-quality U.S. whiskeys. For those who were already aware of these products, it was a chance to learn more about them. For all those attended, we hope that the event will not be the last time that they enjoy a fine American whiskey.

From a vicious cycle of inaction into a virtuous cycle of action: Transatlantic Cooperation on Climate Change

By Madeline Bronstein, Public Affairs Intern at the U.S. Mission to the European Union

At the end of November, the 21st Conference of Parties (COP21) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change will begin in Paris, with a goal of achieving a universal agreement on climate that aims to keep global warming below 2°C. The event is expected to attract nearly 50,000 participants from governments, intergovernmental organizations, UN agencies, NGOs, and civil society, making it one of the largest ever international conferences on climate change.

To achieve a historic, ambitious agreement, parties must focus in particular on the mitigation of emissions, adaption to climate changes, financing climate actions in developing countries, and individual country goals. Before talks in Paris begin, countries have been asked to publish their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs), presenting their national efforts contributing to the global reduction of climate change. These commitments will be a key part of the negotiations in Paris, and set the stage for collaboration and genuine commitment to reaching an agreement.

COP21 presents an opportunity for the global community to come together on an issue that more and more countries are identifying as critical. The atmosphere surrounding the upcoming Paris conference holds a lot of promise, along with a lot of pressure. COP21 may be the last chance for establishing a collective framework for staying below the 2°C threshold, and many countries are pressed to work towards a more collaborative and substantial outcome than has occurred in the past. The U.S. and the EU can both be expected to play an important role in leading discussions on reducing global emissions, as well as in getting others to join the effort.

On Wednesday, October 14th, the European Policy Center, a Brussels-based think tank, hosted an event with the U.S. Mission to the European Union on COP21 and transatlantic involvement in climate change negotiations. “Ambitions and expectations of the EU and the U.S. for COP 21: Getting an agreement out of Paris” featured Jacob Werksman, Principal Adviser to the Directorate General for Climate Action at the European Commission, and Pete Ogden, a Senior Fellow at the Center for American Progress in Washington, D.C. speaking on challenges, expectations, and ambitions on both sides of the Atlantic. Werksman drew on his experience as an international lawyer and negotiator, focusing on the international dimensions of European climate policy. Ogden’s professional history working in the White House, State Department, and now in independent think tanks on climate change and environmental policy, gives him a unique perspective as both an expert and former member of the Obama administration.

Peter Ogden at the European Policy Center in Brussels

Peter Ogden at the European Policy Center in Brussels

During the event, both Werksman and Ogden expressed optimism towards the Paris talks. Countries have shown genuine interest in reaching an agreement and implementing their goals, Ogden explained, “There is a huge amount of political will.” Werksman echoed this, saying that the dedication and embracing of emissions reductions by countries has had a huge impact, and that global politics are aligning to put the international community in a good position for getting an agreement out of COP21.

To the primarily European audience of diplomats, journalists, consultants, and experts, Ogden spoke in detail about the recent history of climate action in the United States, the American political process behind implementing international agreements, and how he sees the U.S.’s role develop going into COP21. The room was filled completely, and the opportunity to hear from a U.S. expert in Europe was not lost on those attending. Audience members asked questions from their various national and professional backgrounds about the American perspective.

The United States has come a long way in domestic climate policy since 2009, Ogden described. Since the beginning of President Obama’s administration, climate change has been a top issue. During the Copenhagen talks, which are generally considered to have had minor impacts on international climate efforts, the U.S. did not have the domestic legal framework to successfully pass an agreement through the legislative body. But even without comprehensive national legislation, individual states still wanted to commit to clean energy independence, and this dedication has only increased and become more widespread. These state-wide efforts were then complimented by federal actions, including President Obama’s Clean Power Plan, which aims to drive a 32% emissions reduction by 2030, and increase the share of renewables in the U.S. fuel mix to 28%. The United States has also seen a huge increase in solar power, eleven times the amount in 2008, as well as a boom in natural gas. These factors, Ogden explained, have made the U.S. more prepared than ever to enter COP21 talks with a strong domestic framework for an ambitious agreement.

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President Obama’s speech at Everglades National Park on April 22, 2015

These views are also shared by President Obama. “The steps we’ve taken over the last several years are already making a difference,” the President stated during his 2015 Earth Day remarks in the Everglades, Florida. “We’re using more clean energy than ever before. America is number one in wind power, and last year we generated 20 times more electricity from sunlight than we did in all of 2008 — 20 times. We’ve committed to doubling the pace at which we cut carbon pollution. And this means that there’s new hope that this year the world will finally reach an agreement to prevent the worst impacts of climate change before it’s too late.”

Hearing Ogden speak about the progress the United States has made domestically was interesting not only for the Europeans in the audience, but for myself as an American as well. Growing up in a United States transitioning into becoming comfortable with “going green” means that I have few perspectives from prior to climate change’s emergence as an issue. I can’t speak to U.S. environmental policy practices in 1990, and as such it was difficult for me to internalize just how far the United States has come in its domestic practices. As Ogden described the progress and changes implemented in the U.S. since the early 2000s, it became clear that the small victories I had been reading and hearing about for years in the U.S. had been adding up to show solid commitment to change. The increasing importance of climate change in American politics has been exponential, and I would agree that the United States is more prepared than ever to play an instrumental role in reaching an ambitious agreement.

The optimism expressed by the speakers is perhaps idealistic, but in the face of a historic international conference like COP21, their views do not appear unfounded. As a millennial, climate change emerged as an issue very early in my lifetime, and watching it progress from a controversial accusation to an international economic and security priority has only strengthened the belief, that many in my generation share, that the global community has waited long enough for the perfect moment, and now is the time to make real, ambitious movements towards reducing climate change.

A major argument against climate action has been that no other powers are making any sacrifices, and one country alone cannot solve the issue Ogden added. “This has changed. We’ve left a vicious cycle of inaction and moved into a virtuous cycle of action”.

As more countries make addressing climate change a priority, even more will follow. With just over a month left until talks in Paris begin, this atmosphere of commitment and collaboration could position the international community towards achieving historic and meaningful frameworks for action, putting the world on track to a cleaner, more sustainable global community.

USEU Minister Counselor Virginia Murray and Women in Foreign Policy

By Madeline Bronstein, Public Affairs Intern at the US Mission to the EU

Part of being a United States Mission to the European Union (USEU) intern is having the opportunity to attend Mission events with various speakers and experts on a range of topics. The Mission is filled with capable, confident, and well-traveled diplomats, and their experiences and stories are fascinating for all audiences, especially for those who are still building their career.
In my first few weeks as the USEU Public Affairs intern, I was able to help organize and attend a discussion regarding Women in Foreign Policy featuring USEU Minister-Counselor (MC) for Political Affairs, Virginia Murray. Murray previously served as the Deputy Chief of Mission in Rangoon, Burma prior to arriving in Brussels, and her career with the State Department has taken her from Jordan and Oman in the Middle East, to Malaysia and Australia in the Asia Pacific, and to the American Presence Post in Rennes, France. Her extensive foreign policy knowledge, as well as her experiences as a woman in the Foreign Service, drew 40 attendees to an event hosted by USEU and professional development networks YPFP (Young Professionals in Foreign Policy), WIIS (Women in International Security), and Leadarise .IMG_0574

In preparation for the event, I worked with the Programs and Exchanges Unit within the USEU Public Affairs Office. I assisted in every aspect, from finalizing the event planning to highlighting the event on USEU’s Twitter page at @US2EU . Members of all three participating networks were eager to hear from MC Murray, asking her interesting questions as well as sharing thoughts in discussions following the event. Participants asked questions on the upcoming Burmese elections, how being a woman affected her professional experiences abroad, and her thoughts on the lack of women in foreign policy leadership roles. Meeting these Brussels professionals was a highlight for me; I appreciated the chance to meet other young, engaged members of the foreign policy world.

During MC Murray’s talk, she reflected on her time with the State Department. Her experiences in Burma during a time of dramatic political change were fascinating, and she listed as one of the highlights of her career, “the stature we were able to give civil society in the eyes of their own government”.

In addition to her experience abroad, MC Murray also discussed her experience as a woman working in foreign policy. “Very often, American women want to seek positions for which we are already qualified,” she said, adding that she has noticed men are more likely to apply for higher positions if they feel they deserve it. “Put yourself out there.”

The first female Foreign Service Officer (FSO) joined in 1922, passing the Foreign Service exam with the third-highest score. Progress for equal representation continued through the postwar years, and in recent years women have been entering the Foreign Service at a higher rate than men. In 2006, of the 387 new FSOs at the Foreign Service Institute, 215 were women and 172 were men. In 1997 Madeleine Albright  began her tenure as the first female Secretary of State, and in January 2005 Condoleezza Rice  became the first woman of color to hold that position.

Attendees, men and women included, had questions for Murray about how the number of women in the Foreign Service has changed, her thoughts on gender quotas, and what they can do differently in their careers. Murray encouraged the audience to be assertive and confident in their skills, and to practice speaking up. “Say, ‘I have something to contribute, and I am going to contribute’,” she urged.

Following the event, we hosted a reception for the event attendees and MC Murray, and everyone appreciated the chance to meet her and thank her for sharing her thoughts and experiences.

We received positive feedback from all three of the participating organizations, saying their members enjoyed the event and found it an enriching experience to interact directly with a Senior United States Diplomat. As my first event, I certainly consider it a success, and look forward to more events here at USEU!

Talking Trade with an Eye to the Future

By Allison Aaronson, Public Affairs Intern at the U.S. Mission to the EU

Today marks the final day of our weeklong blog series, Talking Trade: Stories of the Transatlantic Exchange.

We started off the week with our newest form of trade:  the digital economy.  U.S. Mission to the EU (USEU) Economic Officer Steve Conlon gave us the inside scoop on the U.S. – EU Information Society Dialogue, where he and his colleagues met with their EU counterparts to discuss how we can work together to balance digitally fueled economic growth with high standards of privacy and security.

wrap up image 1Next, USEU Agricultural Minister Counselor Jim Higgiston told us about agricultural trade and its strong, positive influence on our economies. We also learned about some of the agreements supporting transatlantic agricultural trade and simplifying the system for small and medium sized farmers, including the U.S.- EU Organic Equivalency Agreement and the U.S.- EC Wine Agreement.

Yesterday, Donald Prater, Director of FDA Europe at USEU, enlightened us as to the unique challenges of maintaining safety standards in the global pharmaceuticals market. He also discussed the ways in which the U.S. and the EU are joining together to address these challenges, namely, the U.S. – EU Mutual Reliance Initiative.

What I find striking about these analyses is that the consistency and strength of the transatlantic trade relationship is apparent throughout these three seemingly unrelated sectors. The U.S. and the EU are each other’s largest trading partners in almost every sector, a truth that is unquestionably tied to our shared cultural heritage and values. Our digital collaboration is effective because the U.S. and EU are both service-based economies with high levels of innovation and education, but more importantly, because we share a commitment to protecting our citizens’ right to privacy. In the agricultural sector, agreements such as the U.S.-EU Organic Equivalency Agreement and the U.S. – EC Wine Agreement work because the U.S. and the EU have the highest standards for food regulation in the world.  Likewise, we are able to trust our counterpart’s pharmaceutical regulations enough to work towards a shared regulatory system.

The U.S. and the EU are already the world’s most effective trading partners, but we believe we can do even better. We still have opportunities to further open markets, strengthen rules-based investment, decrease regulatory burdens, increase employment, and promote the global competitiveness of small- and medium-sized enterprises. That is why next week, U.S. and EU policymakers will be convening in Brussels for the 10th Round of T-TIP Negotiations. We look forward to the coming week of discussions as our greatest opportunity to build on this thriving relationship, and to collaborate with our European allies to better adapt to our increasingly global society.

Thank you for keeping up with us on #TalkingTrade this week. As always, we appreciate your feedback and would love for you to join the discussion on Facebook and Twitter.  Please look for future installments of #TalkingTrade – there are many facets of the vibrant U.S.-EU trade relationship that we have barely touched on this week. If you want to learn more about T-TIP and next week’s negotiations, please consult the resources below:

White House Fact Sheet: Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (T-TIP)

10th Round of T-TIP Negotiations Information 

Press Conference on the 9th Round of Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) Negotiations

T-TIP Issue-by-Issue Information Center

The Top 10 Myths About TTIP: Separating Fact from Fiction

U.S. and EU Act Together on Global Medical Safety

This is the fourth post in our weeklong blog series, Talking Trade: Stories of the Transatlantic Exchange.

By Donald Prater, Director, FDA Europe at the U.S. Mission to the EU

U.S. demand for medical products grew substantially between the late 1990s and 2010, spurred in large part by the emergence of new medical technologies and services.  Increasingly, this demand has been met by imported products. Since 2002, for example, imports of pharmaceutical products and biologics have more than doubled, and medical device imports have quadrupled. Foreign-sourced pharmaceuticals now account for some 40% of medicines and an astonishing 80% of active ingredients in U.S.-consumed drugs.

pharmaceutical image 1Similarly, medical products in Europe are increasingly reliant on foreign-sourced materials and face the same challenges of longer and more complex supply chains. Additional shared challenges include an increasing number of clinical trials conducted across the world and risks from substandard/counterfeit/falsified products finding their way to consumers.

As the Director of FDA’s Europe Office, it is my mission to coordinate our global engagement within a European regulatory and public health context to ensure the safety and quality of FDA-regulated products. Many of the regulatory counterparts with which FDA works are located in Europe. In fact, over 50% of FDA’s international agreements are with entities located or headquartered in Europe.

With our European regulatory counterparts, FDA is actively sharing data, information, and technical expertise. Since 2009, FDA and the European Medicines Agency have enhanced our collaboration through the exchange of dedicated liaison officers embedded within each agency, and through engagement in 11 “clusters of activity”, including advanced medical therapies, biosimilar medicines, blood products, oncology, orphan products, patient involvement, pediatrics, pharmacogenomics, pharmacovigilance, vaccines, and veterinary medicines.

pharmaceutical image 2Ensuring the quality of products in a global environment is a tall order. At every stage in the production of pharmaceutical products, and all along the global supply chain, things can go wrong.  Products can be improperly formulated, manufactured, or packaged. They can be contaminated or counterfeited. And the challenges are multiplied when the supply chain stretches around the world.

Today, the FDA regulates products from over 150 countries, many with much less sophisticated regulatory systems than our own. International standards harmonization and collaboration, for example, in regulated-site inspection activities, can help leverage the limited resources of FDA and our foreign counterparts. It is for this reason that our regulatory partners in Europe are such an important ally.

In 2014, the U.S. and EU launched the U.S.-EU Mutual Reliance Initiative, a strategic collaboration between the FDA, the European Commission and the European Medicines Agency. The aim of the initiative is to determine that each side has the capability of conducting inspections that meet the respective regulatory requirements. Once a determination is made, each side would then be able to rely on the other’s inspections to be more efficient and effective in targeting resources for inspecting pharmaceutical operations and for other appropriate purposes.

This type of collaboration not only increases our ability to evaluate pharmaceutical facilities, but allows experts to learn from each other. It also benefits patients by refocusing efforts to better address problems before adverse public health outcomes potentially occur. The result: more efficient use of resources and improved pharmaceutical availability.

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